Space tourism is rapidly moving from the realm of science-fiction to reality – some developers have promised to launch hotels into Earth’s orbit as early as 2021.


In September, NASA astronauts toured a life-sized prototype of an inflatable habitat that could one day house astronauts on a journey to Mars. Bigelow Aerospace, the company behind that prototype, hopes to bring tourists into space as well, and it’s not alone. Some developers are already selling reservations at future space hotels.


Designs for such in-orbit lodging vary: Some involve spacious inflatable habitats, others include condominiums, and one concept even promises villas in a rotating, wheel-shaped space station equipped with artificial gravity. Space tourists could one day get an immersive astronaut experience, be wined and dined with incredible views of the Earth, or even play zero-gravity games like Quidditch.


“Eventually, going to space will just be another option people will pick for their vacation, just like going on a cruise, or going to Disney World,” Tim Alatorre, an architect working on a space-hotel project called the Von Braun Space Station, told Dezeen.


Here’s what future space lodging might look like.


A report released by Samsung in August predicted that space hotels could become available by 2069.

Samsung’s report did not include specifics about what these space hotels might look like, but it provided this artist’s interpretation.


In the report, six academics and futurists from the UK predicted coming technological changes including drone-style flying taxis, undersea highways, and luxury space hotels.


These hotels could orbit Earth, the moon, or other planets, generating their own gravity to make the space experience more comfortable, the authors said.


But some companies say they can do it sooner than that. In August, the Gateway Foundation announced plans to open the Von Braun Space Station, a wheel-shaped, rotating space hotel, to tourists by 2025.

A rendering of the Gateway Foundation’s Von Braun Station.
Copyright 2019 Gateway Foundation


The Gateway Foundation hopes to welcome 100 tourists per week once the station opens. After the structure is fully complete in 2027, they expect it to hold a total of up to 450 people.


The company also plans to open its giant space station to government space agencies.


Plans for the structure suggest it would have two concentric rings connected by spokes. The whole thing would be about 620 feet (190 meters) in diameter. The inner ring would serve as a port where spacecraft could dock to unload passengers and cargo.

A rendering of SpaceX’s Starship spacecraft docking at the Von Braun Station.
Copyright 2019 Gateway Foundation


People would travel from the dock to accommodations in the outer ring through pressurized access tubes.


The outer ring would feature 24 cylinder-shaped, pressurized modules with rooms inside. The modules would house crew quarters, government research centers, hotel rooms, bars, restaurants, and luxury private villas.

Modules in the outer ring of the Von Braun Station.
Copyright 2019 Gateway Foundation


Each module would feature about 5,300 square feet (500 square meters) of floor space, Alatorre said.


The Gateway Foundation’s design calls for artificial gravity and comforts similar to the offerings of a cruise ship.

A rendering of the interior of the Von Braun Station.
Copyright 2019 Gateway Foundation


“The use of fabrics, warm-coloured lighting and paints, and materials with texture all help us to connect and feel at home,” Alatorre told Dezeen. “Because the station will have gravity, there will be sense of direction and orientation that isn’t present in the ISS [International Space Station].”


The artificial gravity still wouldn’t match Earth’s, though — most of the station would have one-sixth of our planet’s gravity, and some parts would have zero gravity.

A rendering of modules with window hatches on the Von Braun Station.
Copyright 2019 Gateway Foundation


Alatorre said he expects new products, games, and companies to develop in a future industry of low-gravity tourism.


“There is potential for playing fictional games such as Quidditch from the Harry Potter series and the battle games from the Ender’s Game series,” Alatorre told Dezeen.

Restaurants and bars inside the Von Braun Station would overlook Earth.
Copyright 2019 Gateway Foundation


“There will also be many of the things you see on cruise ships: restaurants, bars, musical concerts, movie screenings, and educational seminars,” he added.


Other companies have floated simpler designs for future orbiting hotels. In 2011, a Russian company called Orbital Technologies said it would launch a seven-room space lodge by 2016. The plan never came to fruition.

A rendering of the Orbital Technologies space hotel.


The Nevada-based Sierra Nevada Corporation acquired Orbital Technologies in 2014.


According to Orbital Technologies’ original plans, guests could have stayed for five days at a cost of $1 million. The vacation would have somewhat resembled the experience of astronauts on the ISS.

A rendering of a room inside the Orbital Technologies space hotel.


Guests would have eaten space food, taken sponge baths, and used vacuum toilets, according to The Christian Science Monitor.


Aerospace company Orion Span, meanwhile, hopes to launch its Aurora Space Station in 2021 and open it to guests by 2022.

A rendering shows a spacecraft preparing to attach to the Aurora Space Station.
Orion Span


The station would host six people at a time, including crew members. A 12-day visit would cost at least $9.5 million.


People can already put down an $80,000 deposit to join a waitlist for reservations (whenever they open). Orion Span accepts Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Within 72 hours of opening the waitlist, the company said it had sold four months’ worth of reservation deposits.


Aurora wouldn’t be a traditional hotel, and not just because of the lack of gravity. Visitors would work as a team to operate the station and conduct science experiments, similar to what astronauts do on the ISS.

Guests at the Aurora Space Station would participate in the station’s operations and science experiments.
Orion Span


Orion Span would require its space tourists to undergo three months of training before they launch.


The design for Aurora calls for it to orbit Earth every 90 minutes, the same way the International Space Station does. That means visitors would see 16 sunrises and sunsets each day.

Aurora Space Station guests would sleep in pods like this one.
Orion Span


Sleeping pods would offer some reprieve, and high-speed wifi would allow guests to connect with people back home.


The plan calls for adding new modules to the station over time, some as space condominiums.

A rendering shows a visiting spacecraft preparing to attach to the Aurora Space Station.
Orion Span


“Our architecture is such that we can easily add capacity, enabling us to grow with market demand like a city growing skyward on Earth,” Frank Bunger, Orion Span’s CEO and founder, said in a press release. “Future Aurora owners can live in, visit, or sublease their space condo.”


Yet another vision for an orbiting hotel comes from a team of MIT students that won a NASA design competition. The space agency requested concepts for habitats that could house humans in orbit and eventually take them to Mars.

MARINA was designed as a habitable, commercially owned module for use in low-Earth orbit.
MIT MARINA Team: Matthew Moraguez, George Lordos, Valentina Sumini, Samuel Wald, Alex Trujillo, Johannes Norheim, Meghan Maupin, John Stillman, Alpha Arsano, Anran Li, Mark Tam, Zoe Lallas; advised by Prof. Caitlin Mueller.


The main feature of the team’s design is a luxury Earth-facing hotel with eight rooms and a bar, restaurant, and gym.


Called the Managed, Reconfigurable, In-space Nodal Assembly (MARINA), the concept is a hybrid between a hotel and a space station. Rooms would come in the form of inflatable modules attached in a circle around the main spacecraft.


According to the students’ plan, the hotel could open to guests by 2025, then get additional modules added over the next 15 years. By 2038, the students say the modules could be repurposed to carry a crew to Mars, where the spaceship could refuel with locally produced methane.


NASA would be a temporary tenant in the MARINA for about 10 years, according to the students’ proposal.


The students have even presented an investment plan to the International Astronautical Federation.


Inflatable modules are a popular choice for space-habitat designers, since they can be deflated and compactly stored for launch. Rigid structures, by contrast, are constricted by the size of their launch rocket.

NASA’s $45.5 million NextSTEP initiative aims to partner with private companies to develop deep-space habitats. This is Sierra Nevada Corporation’s design proposal.
Sierra Nevada Corporation


NASA recently announced plans to test five deep-space habitat prototypes, including the above design from Sierra Nevada Corporation. Called the Large Inflatable Fabric Environment (LIFE), the habitat would expand to be 27 feet in diameter with three floors of living space.


Bigelow Aerospace is a pioneer in space inflatables. One of its designs is already attached to the ISS.

The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) on the International Space Station has been re-certified to remain on the ISS through 2028.
NASA; Bigelow Aerospace via Imgur


Astronauts have been routinely monitoring the inflatable module, called the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM), and conducting tests inside it.


NASA installed it in 2016 to test out the technology for future space missions. The agency renewed the contract two years later, agreeing to keep the module onboard through 2028.


Bigelow is currently designing a new space habitat based on that prototype. It’s called the B330 because it would have 330 cubic meters (11,600 cubic feet) of volume.

An illustration shows what the Expandable Bigelow Advanced Station Enhancement (XBASE), a B330 module, would look like attached to the International Space Station.
Bigelow Aerospace via Imgur


Bigelow has proposed attaching the new module to the ISS as well. The B330 could launch at one third of its expanded size and house up to six crew members.


Two B330 modules could potentially link together to form their own space station. Bigelow Aerospace sees this as a way to build a space station that orbits the moon.

A conceptual image of two B330 inflatable space habitats that Bigelow Aerospace hopes will comprise the Gateway lunar space station in support of NASA’s Artemis program.
Bigelow Aerospace


A lunar space station is part of NASA’s Artemis program, which aims to send astronauts back to the moon and, eventually, to Mars.


Bigelow hasn’t shared designs for the planned hotel module yet, but prototypes of the modules it has designed for professional astronauts offer an idea.

A cut-away diagram of Bigelow Aerospace’s B330 inflatable space station.
Facebook/Bigelow Aerospace


“Equipped with two galleys, two toilets, enormous cargo space, and two dissimilar propulsion systems, this is the ideal habitat for a long-duration space mission,” Bigelow said in September.


NASA astronauts visited Bigelow’s Mars Transporter Testing Unit, a mock-up that the company uses to test internal layouts for future astronaut habitats, in September.

An outside view of the Mars Transporter Testing Unit, with Bigelow, NASA astronauts, and others.
Bigelow Aerospace via Imgur


The unit, located at Bigelow’s Las Vegas facility, is a steel-hulled variant of the B330 (that’s not designed to launch into space).


Inside the unit are two vegetable gardens.

Two veggie gardens and two galleys in the middle deck of the Bigelow Mars Transporter Testing Unit. On the left is one of two work stations in the testing unit.
Bigelow Aerospace via Imgur


Bigelow is testing such technology as a potential way to provide future astronauts with fresh produce on a long journey to Mars.


The testing facility has three floors, but without gravity, of course, it would be more open-concept.

A look inside the middle deck of the Bigelow Mars Transporter Testing Unit. The central core of the B330 is one of the main translation passages inside the space station.
Bigelow Aerospace via Imgur


In the B330’s central passage (shown here), supplies would be packed tightly in the deflated unit during the launch phase.


NASA officials and astronauts toured another Bigelow prototype, called Olympus, in October.

Olympus, a conceptual design for a large space station, is displayed during a tour of Bigelow Aerospace in North Las Vegas, Nevada, September 12, 2019.
REUTERS/Steve Marcus


That one has a volume of 2,250 cubic meters (79,400 cubic feet).


Upon docking to another module or space station, the habitat would expand to two spacious stories.

Journalists tour the interior of Olympus, a conceptual design for a large space station with 2,250 cubic meters of volume, at Bigelow Aerospace in North Las Vegas, Nevada, September 12, 2019.
REUTERS/Steve Marcus


“Potentially we think that for the rest of this century, the expandable architecture is where it’s at,” Bigelow told Reuters.


Eventually, space exploration could involve entire worlds crammed inside a spaceship.

A 1970s illustration by NASA of a toroidal space colony, complete with trees, houses, grassy lawns, and patio gatherings.
Rick Guidice/NASA Ames Research Center


Jeff Bezos, the CEO of Amazon and founder of rocket company Blue Origin, wants to enable humanity to spread across the cosmos with spaceship habitats.


Bezos wants these floating colonies to have ideal, Hawaii-like weather all the time.


Morgan McFall-JohnsenBusiness Insider US